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Malcolm Arnold

Publisher: Novello & Co

Tam O'Shanter - Overture (1955)
Publisher
Paterson Publications
Category
Orchestra
Sub Category
Large Orchestra
Year Composed
1955
Duration
8 Minutes


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Programme Note
Malcolm Arnold Tam O'Shanter - Overture (1955)
This work which is dedicated to Michael Diack, one of the composer’s publishers, was completed early in March 1955. The composer regards Robert Burns as one of the greatest of poets, and has expressed the hope that his own enjoyment of the work of the remarkable Scotsman, as reflected in this music, will encourage others to read him. The overture has a well-defined programme, though one’s response to it is by no means wholly dependent on the literary background.

Tam O’Shanter, commonly accepted as one of the poet’s finest works, is the grimly humorous legend of a hard drinker who ignores his wife’s warning that he will one day be “catch’d wi’ warlocks” for his misdeeds. Late one momentous night, in tempest and roaring thunder, he sets out recklessly from the inn and drives his mare, Meg, on the homeward road. When they reach the haunted kirk, they witness a wild orgy of witches and warlocks, with many ghastly trimmings that Burns catalogues in detail:
Wi’ mair o’ horrible and awfu’
Which ev’n to name wad be unlawfu’

One dancer, wearing a garment “in longitude tho’ sorely scanty” (a cutty-sark in the native Doric), pleases Tam so well that he cries out “Weel done, cutty-sark!” In an instant all is dark, and the hellish legion pursues him. If he reaches the bridge he is safe, for the fiends cannot cross running water. He escapes narrowly – but his gallant mare loses her tail, which had been grasped by a witch. The moral, embodied in the last lines of the poem is that one should remember Tam O’Shanter when tempted by thought of drink and cutty-sarks:

Now wha this tale o’truth shall read,
Ilk man and mother’s son tak heed
Whene’er to drink you are inclin’d,
Or cutty-sarks run in your mind,
Think ye may buy the joys o’er dear,
Remember Tam O’ Shanter’s mare.

The overture begins slowly with string unison forming a background for characteristic woodwind and brass quips that establish the atmosphere. Clarinets put in a bagpipey drone fifth; piccolo whistles a fragment of melody with a Scottish flavour; bassoons with inebriated rhythm and copious “Scotch snap”, able along; muted brass slithers in glissandi (a recurring device). Soon, with growing velocity, Tam is on his wild ride into the storm. Lightening flashes and thunder roars, with gong, cymbals, and drums much in evidence. Tam gallops harder and harder, cracking his whip. Brass and drums suddenly lead to shivering string tremolos, and Tam watches the impious dance. Burns tells us that this is no new cotillion from France, “but hornpipes, jigs, strathspeys and reels”. The Scottish character of the music is evident. “Weel done, Cutty-sark!” cries Tam, in a trombone solo that all but articulates the words – and the devilish hunt is up. It comes to a sudden end and there is a short scud of woodwind solos (Tam disappearing in the distance) ending in a high trilling note on the first violins. Flutes and clarinets, perhaps sarcastically, point the moral of the story and with a terrific flurry, the overture ends.

Tam O’Shanter was first performed at a Henry Wood Promenade Concert on 17 August 1955, with Malcolm Arnold conducting the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra. It was received with tremendous enthusiasm, and was, without doubt, the most popular novelty during the 1955 season of Promenade Concerts. The composer is at pains to point out that, whereas the earlier overture Beckus the Dandipratt is not descriptive but merely a musical impression, Tam O’Shanter is very definitely programme music.


  • Ensemble
    Dragefjellets Musikkorps
    Conductor
    Brynildsen
  • Ensemble
    Minnesota Orchestra
    Conductor
    Eiji Oue
    Reference:
  • Ensemble
    Dallas Wind Symphony Orchestra
    Conductor
    Jerry F. Junkin
    Reference:
  • Ensemble
    Royal Philharmonic Orchestra / Philharmonia Orchestra
    Conductor
    Malcolm Arnold / Robert Irving
  • Ensemble
    English Northern Philharmonia
    Conductor
    Paul Daniel
    Naxos:
  • Ensemble
    Royal Scottish National Orchestra
    Conductor
    Sir Alexander Gibson
    Chandos:
  • Ensemble
    Royal Philharmonic Orchestra
    Conductor
    Vernon Handley
  • Ensemble
    BBC Philharmonic Orchestra
    Conductor
    Rumon Gamba
    Chandos:
  • Ensemble
    Royal Philharmonic Orchestra / BBC Concert Orchestra / London Philharmonic Orchestra / London Musici / Grimethorpe Colliery Band / Philip Jones Brass Ensemble
    Soloist(s)
    Benjamin Frith, piano
    Conductor
    Vernon Handley / Sir Adrian Boult / Mark Stephenson / Sir Malcolm Arnold / Elgar Howarth
    Conifer Records Limited:
  • Ensemble
    BBC Philharmonic
    Conductor
    Rumon Gamba
    Chandos:
  • Ensemble
    Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra / Royal Philharmonic Orchestra / City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra / Philharmonia Orchestra
    Conductor
    Malcolm Arnold
    EMI Classics:
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