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Thea Musgrave

Publisher: Novello & Co

The Seasons (1988)
commissioned by The Academy of St Martin in the Fields
Novello & Co Ltd
Sub Category
Chamber Orchestra
Year Composed
22 Minutes
Programme Note
Thea Musgrave The Seasons (1988)
The Academy of St Martin's in the Fields commissioned The Seasons in 1988. That year, they gave the first performance in the Royal Festival Hall, conducted by Sir Neville Marriner.

The idea for the work crystallised after a visit to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. Piero di Cosimo’s Caccia Primitiva, a frightening image of fire and destruction built around a wild and gory hunt scene, gave rise to the idea that various pictures related to the four seasons could become a metaphor for the cycles in the life of man.

In this way the first movement, Autumn, violent and destructive, stands for an impending storm, be it literal or metaphorical. One of the main musical motives includes hunting horns set against a restless background. They are eventually swallowed up by a violent tempest. In mourning, bells ring out the Dies Irae. Here the mood is depicted by Picasso’s The End of the Road.

In Winter, all is a frozen wasteland of ice and despair, but one single voice, a solo oboe, keeps a small flame of hope alive. A painting by Leutze, Washington Crossing the Frozen Delaware, prompts a distant, brief quote of The Star Spangled Banner.

In Spring the rains come, the snow melts and a 'dawn chorus' of birds heralds the moment of re-birth. The movement builds to a romantic climax, culminating in two massive chords (a quotation of the 'freedom chords' from the composer’s opera Harriet, the Woman called Moses). This dissolves to a serene cadence, where the voice of the cuckoo can be heard, Van Gogh’s The Sower comes to mind.

Summer is fulfilment and celebration. Inspired by Van Gogh’s Le 14 juillet à Paris, Jasper Johns’s Flag and Monet’s Rue St Denis, Festivities of June 30, 1878, the scene of season, place and rejoicing is reinforced in the music by the layering of the national anthems of the USA and France. And finally, the Johns painting represents George Washington’s success in negotiating the River Delaware, and here, “fulfilment” acquires another dimension: the liberation from tyranny.

Although each season clearly has its own distinct themes and mood, there are some harmonic elements that run through the entire work, tying it together. One is a single chord (C, E-flat, G, B) which appears in every movement but each time at a different octave. Eventually, this chord is incorporated into the 'freedom chords' mentioned earlier. Yet another chord, an augmented one (B-flat, D, F-sharp) also has an important role and appears in each movement.

© Thea Musgrave

  • Ensemble
    Scottish Chamber Orchestra
    Nicholas Kraemer
    Collins Classics:
  • Ensemble
    Scottish Chamber Orchestra* / BBC Symphony Orchestra**
    Nicholas Daniel, oboe*
    Nicholas Kraemer* / Jac van Steen**
  • Ensemble
    BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra
    Victoria Soames Samek, clarinet/bass clarinet
    Thea Musgrave
    Clarinet Classics:
  • 15 FEB 2014
    BBC SO Total Immersion: Thea Musgrave
    Barbican Hall, London
    BBC Symphony Orchestra
    Martin Owen, horn; Martyn Brabbins, conductor
  • 18 JUL 2013
    Radio New Zealand
    Radio New Zealand recording
  • 08 MAR 2012
    Vasteras, Sweden
    Vasteras Sinfonia
    Roy Goodwin, conductor
  • 08 MAR 2012
    Vasteras, SWEDEN
    Vasteras Sinfonietta
    Roy Goodwin, conductor
  • 08 DEC 2008
    All eyes on... Thea Musgrave
    The Sage Gateshead
    Northern Sinfonia
    Nicholas Daniel, oboe; Nicholas Kraemer, conductor
  • 01 OCT 2008
    Glasgow, UK
    Scottish Chamber Orchestra
    Nicholas Kraemer, conductor

    Other Dates:
    2 October - Edinburgh, UK
    3 October - Kilmarnock, UK
  • 28 MAY 2003
    Winterthur, Switzerland
    Musikkollegium Winterthur
    Nicholas Kraemer, conductor
  • 12 FEB 1999
    Manchester, UK
    RNCM Symphony Orchestra
    Ian Wright, conductor
  • 29 MAY 1998
    Scottish Chamber Orchestra
    Nicholas Kraemer, conductor
  • 17 MAR 1998
    BBC, UK
    Thea Musgrave, conductor
  • 25 OCT 1997
    Akron, Ohio, US
    Akron Symphony Orchestra
    Tania León, conductor
  • 29 MAR 1997
    San Francisco, US
    Women's Philharmonic
    Apo Hsu, conductor
  • 25 OCT 1995
    LeFrak, New York City
    Queens College Orchestra
    Maurice Peress, conductor

    Other Dates:
    13 December - LeFrak, New York City
  • 16 JUN 1995
    St Magnus Cathedral, Kirkwall, Orkney, UK
    Scottish Chamber Orchestra
    Nicholas Kraemer, conductor
  • 17 APR 1993
    Santa Fe, New Mexico, US
    Santa Fe Symphony Orchestra
    Stewart Robertson, conductor

    Other Dates:
    18 April - Santa Fe, New Mexico, US
  • 22 MAR 1991
    Omaha, US
    Omaha Symphony Orchestra
    Bruce Hangen, conductor

    Other Dates:
    23 March - University of Nebraska, US
  • 14 DEC 1988
    The Seasons World Premiere
    Academy of St Martin in the Fields
    Neville Marriner, conductor

... ‘Autumn’, music that vividly swirls and is packed with incident, lucidly realised and unfailingly engaging.
Colin Anderson ,,2/15/2014
Musgrave is a musical dramatist par excellence. The Seasons seethes with dramatic incident, which you can either take at an abstract or a pictorial level… Two real Musgrave fingerprints stamp the piece: the long-limbed gorgeous romanticism of spring, which becomes as ardent as Strauss; and the unstoppable, hectic, racing momentum of her celebration of summer – at subtly depicting high-velocity action, she is almost without parallel.
Michael Tumelty, Glasgow Herald,6/1/1995
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