Explanation of the instrument string
sarrus Sarrusophone
cbn Contrabassoon
Ebcl E Flat Clarinet
bcl Bass Clarinet
obdc Oboe da Caccia
ca Cor Anglais
obda Oboe d'Amore
rec Recorder
afl Alto Flute
pic Piccolo
fl Flute
asx Alto Saxophone
heck Heckelphone
ssx Soprano Saxophone
bn Bassoon
cl Clarinet
ob Oboe
sx Saxophone
barsx Baritone Saxophone
tsx Tenor Saxophone
Wtba Wagner Tuba
sous Sousaphone
euph Euphonium
flg Flugel Horn
cnt Cornet
hn Horn
tba Tuba
tpt Trumpet
tbn Trombone
timp Timpani
perc Percussion
cym Cymbal
cga Conga
tbells Tubular Bells
xyl Xylophone
chm Chimes
dms Drums
glock Glockenspiel
mba Marimba
met Metal
tam Tambor
vib Vibraphone
tamb Tambourine
cel Celesta
hpd Harpsichord
syn Synthesizer
kbd Keyboard
vdga Viola da Gamba
bc basso continuo
Horg Hammond Organ
lu Lute
man Mandolin
uke Ukelele
tape Tape
egtr Electric Guitar
sampler Sampler
acn Accordion
electronics Elecronics
hmn Harmonium
epf Electric Piano
hp Harp
pf Piano
org Organ
bgtr Bass Guitar
eb Electric Bass
bjo Banjo
gtr Guitar
evn E Violin
vn Violin 1
vn Violin 2
va Viola
vc Cello
db Double Bass
str Strings

T Tenor
S Soprano
A Alto
Bar Baritone
B Bass
narrator Narrator
Ms Mezzo Soprano
voice Voice
Orchestra and ensemble instrumentation appear in score order as follows
  • flute.oboe.clarinet.saxophone.bassoon/
  • horn.trumpet.trombone.tuba/
  • percussion/
  • harp.keyboard/
  • other plucked strings/
  • violin1.violin2.viola.cello.doublebass;
  • continuo;
  • electronic tape;
  • voice(s) treated as an instrument
The instrumentation for small ensembles is indicated as a range of abbreviations. Soloists are listed separately from the orchestral line up.
The instruments in each separate group between the dashes are divided by a full stop, and the numbers indicate the number of instruments.
"str" without indication of number indicates that a string group, without any specific demands as to the number of strings, is involved.
Instruments in an ordinary bracket indicate doubling:
 - 1(pic).1.1.1 thus signifies that the flute player also plays the piccolo.
Instruments in square brackets indicate alternatives:
 - 1.1[ca].1.1 signifies that the oboe can be replaced by a cor anglais.
A plus in front of the instrument indicates that we are dealing with an extra instrument:
 - 1+pic.1.1.1 signifies that there is a piccolo player as well as a flute player.
2 violins, oboe 2(pic:afl)2.2(Ebcl,bcl).2/
indicates 2 solo violins, 1 solo oboe and an orchestra with 2 flutes (1 player doubling piccolo, the other doubling alto), 2 oboes, 2 clarinets (one player doubling both E-flat clarinet and bass clarinet), 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones, 1 tuba, 2 percussionists, harp, 2 pianos, and a string group consisting of 14 violin1, 12 violin2, 10 violas, 8 cellos, and 6 bass.
0 afl.1[ca].1.1/
indicate 1 alto flute, 1 oboe or cor anglais, 2 clarinet, 1 bassoon, 1 horn, 1 percussionist and 1 timpanist, and strings.